Understanding Zip Code Data

INTRODUCTION:

When working with Zip Code level data, there are several factors to consider. This article, while not exhaustive, lists the main items to keep in mind when using Zip Code data for your geographical study Region.

 

AGGREGATION & LEAKAGES:

Zip code files, like other IMPLAN files, can be combined to create a Region or used independently. Please keep in mind that while an individual zip code file will create Multipliers and have impacts, these impacts will be minimal. This is because zip codes may have little or no population and/or little to no employment. Also, many individual zip codes are not large enough to allow for local sourcing of materials needed for the indirect effect or to provide adequate services to create significant induced effect leading to much of the potential impact being lost in leakages.

Zip code regions may represent very small economic Regions and consequently, be extremely open to leakages. These leakages, even to nearby regions (in some instances this could literally be across the street) are lost from the Region resulting in very small Indirect and Induced Effects. Please take into consideration where indirect purchases will be located and where employees may be spending their labor income when customizing zip code regions for analysis.

 

MRIO:

Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) analysis allows for purchases to be made between Regions (the zip code(s) and the linked regions) by tracking trade between these regions, potentially capturing many of the lost impacts. 

 

MISSING ZIP CODES:

Not all zip codes listed by the U.S. Postal Service may be represented in the zip code package you receive. The USPS can open/close post offices or reorganize routes on an on-going basis, thereby changing zip-code demographics. Because of this, the County Business Patterns and Census demographic zip code representation may not be current.

Depending on the year, roughly 4% of zip-codes have neither County Business Patterns (CBP) employment nor Census (demographic) data. If your region includes any of these zip codes, they will not be available in the package you purchase, as there is inadequate information to create Multipliers for these regions. Depending on the year, there will be roughly 8,000 zip-code files for which there is only CBP data with no demographic data. Most of these are P.O. boxes and “unique” point codes. They serve business but do not represent residential population. With no household representation, all employment would be considered in-commuting and have no local induced effect.

Conversely, there are also some zip-code files with only demographic data and no CBP data. While CBP data does not exist for these zip-codes, they may still contain employment in some sectors since CBP data do not cover all IMPLAN sectors. Population is used as a distributor for most of these non-covered sectors. Farm counts by zip-code from the 2017 Census of Agriculture are used to distribute agricultural industry data in these cases.

There will be cases where you may find an Industry exists in an actual zip code region but does not show up in the zip code data (or even the county data). This occurs because of unreported sectors in the CBP and inconsistencies in data between CBP and BLS covered wages and employment. When this issue occurs, you will need to customize your Region to add the Industry to the Study Area. CBP data are primarily obtained from administrative records supplied by the IRS, Social Security, and other sources. CBP is tabulated on an establishment basis, and each business location is tabulated only once according to the primary business activity. The industry classifications of establishments in the CBP are self-reported in the vast majority of cases. BLS CEW data are obtained from quarterly tax reports submitted to State Employment Security Agencies.

Panel Data

INTRODUCTION:
Are you interested in looking at IMPLAN data across years? Our Panel Data might be what you are looking for! It is produced using our latest and best methodologies, which have been improved over the past 20 years of data development. These enhanced features make more accurate statistical analysis possible.

PRODUCT DETAILS:
Panel Data consists of repeated measures on the same regions over time. In IMPLAN, we have data going back to 2001 that allows you to compare your Region and your Industry through time.

You’ll receive data files for Demographics, Industries, Commodities, and a file that contains deflators (as all data are presented in nominal dollars and not adjusted for inflation). This way you can quickly look at changes by Industry and Year for your geography to see how your economy is changing.

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA:
These data include, for each geography and year, population, land area, total personal income, the total number of households and the number of households by 9 income categories, and the Shannon-Weaver Index (S-W Index). Personal income includes not just labor income, but also personal dividend income, personal interest income, rental income of persons, and transfer payments. Labor income information can be found in the Industry Data file. The Shannon-Weaver Index is an index of economic diversity based on the distribution of employment among all sectors.

INDUSTRY DATA:
These data include, for each geography and year, each IMPLAN Industry’s Output, total Employment, Wage and Salary Employment, Proprietor Employment, Employee Compensation (EC), Proprietor Income, Other Property Income (OPI), and Taxes on Production and Income net of subsidies (TOPI).

COMMODITY DATA:
These data include, for each geography and year and Commodity, the Institutional level, the foreign exports of each IMPLAN Commodity from the region (via the Foreign Exports institution), each IMPLAN Institution’s gross final demand for each IMPLAN Commodity, and each IMPLAN Institution’s sales of each IMPLAN Commodity.

Household final demand is reported for all households combined as opposed to by household income group. Household final demand by income group is available but please inquire for more information regarding this data.

DATA DELIVERY & SUPPORT:
The data will be provided in .xlsx files containing the Panel Data for the requested years and/or Industries. Users will have unlimited access to IMPLAN Community Forum at support.implan.com for questions specific to the data. IMPLAN economists will gladly respond to questions on IMPLAN’s Community forum within 5 business days at no additional charge. IMPLAN does not support data-application or related questions via email, phone, project consultation, or community forum.

To learn more about our Panel Data, please contact IMPLAN at 800-507-9426 or [email protected]

Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index Data

INTRODUCTION:

Economic diversity is believed to enhance economic stability and growth by limiting the number of imports a local economy needs to sustain its current production and by providing increased availability of locally produced final demand purchases. The Shannon–Weaver (S-W) Diversity Index measures economic diversity on the basis of the number of Industries in a region and the distribution of employment across those Industries.  

 

PRODUCT DETAILS:

Generally, entropy methods measure the order or disorder found in the data. The S-W Index is an entropy method that measures the economic diversity of a region against a uniform distribution of employment; where the norm is equal employment in all Industries. 

In other words, it is a measure of the extent to which the employment of a region is evenly distributed among its Industries. It ranges in value from zero to one, with zero indicating minimum diversity and a value of one indicating maximum diversity. A value of zero (complete specialization) occurs when the economic activity of a region is concentrated in only one Industry. A value of one (perfect diversity) occurs when all industries are present in the region, with employment spread equally among them.

 

DATA DELIVERY & SUPPORT:

The data will be provided in .xlsx files containing the S-W Index Data for the requested geographies and years. Users will have unlimited access to IMPLAN Community Forum at support.implan.com for questions specific to the data. IMPLAN economists will gladly respond to questions on IMPLAN’s Community forum within 5 business days at no additional charge. IMPLAN does not support data-application or related questions via email, phone, project consultation, or community forum.

The S-W Index is available for 2001 to the current Data Year (2018). The data is available for zip codes, congressional districts, counties, and states.

 

LICENSE AGREEMENT:

Access to the IMPLAN S-W Index Data is protected with a custom license agreement.  The license agreement will be presented when you are ready to purchase data. Sorry, the lawyers make us do it.

 

SAMPLE DATA:

Sample Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index Data

 

RELATED ARTICLES:

The Shannon-Weaver Index of Economic Diversity: An Overview and Descriptive Analysis

 

OTHER RESOURCES:

Thorvaldson, J. & Squibb, J. (2017). An Expanded Look into the Role of Economic Diversity on Unemployment. The Journal of Regional Analysis & Policy, 42, 2, pp 137-153.

Tax Data

INTRODUCTION:

For those that wish to dig deeper into Tax Data, IMPLAN has details available at the county and state levels. This data allows you to examine the total taxes collected at by more specificity than in IMPLAN.

 

PRODUCT DETAILS:

The Tax Data captures all tax revenue across all levels of government that exist in that study area for the specific industries and institutions affected by an event or group of events. It is available from 2001 to the current IMPLAN Data Year (2018). 

IMPLAN compiles this report from datasets produced by the Census Bureau; specifically, we combine data from the most recent Census of Governments (released every 5 years, comprehensively covering units of government), the Annual Survey of State and Local Governments (covering a selection of units of government including all large units, released annually with a 1-year lag), and the annual State Government Tax Collections survey (released annually with no lag).  Our process uses the most recent data available, filling in holes with projected values from older datasets (e.g., updating the annual surveys with information from the 5-year census). We preserve detail about the units of government, allowing you to see in this report, for example, individual cities and special taxation districts. The underlying data that supports the Tax Data has limits, however. More details on the Tax Data can be found in the article: Generation and Interpretation of IMPLAN’s Tax Impact Report.

 

FEDERAL TAXES INCLUDE:

Air Transportation

Education

Employment Security Administration

General Local
Government Support

Health and Hospitals

Highways

Housing and Community Development

Natural Resources

Public Welfare

Sewerage

Water Utilities

All Other

 

OTHER TAXES INCLUDE: 

Air Transportation

Alcoholic Beverage License

Alcoholic Beverage Sales

Amusements License

Amusements Sales

Bond Funds – Cash and Securities

Corporation License

Corporation Net Income

Death and Gift

Documentary and Stock Transfer

Education

Electric Utilities

Employment Security Administration

General Local Government Support

General Sales and Gross Receipts

Health and Hospitals

Highways

Housing and Community Development

Hunting and Fishing License

Individual Income

Insurance Premiums Sales

Miscellaneous – Fines and Forfeits

Miscellaneous – Rents

Miscellaneous – Royalties

Miscellaneous – Special Assessments

Motor Fuels Sales

Motor Vehicle License

Motor Vehicle Operator License

Natural Resources

NEC

Occupation and Business License, NEC

Other Funds – Cash and Securities

Other In Trust – Other Contributions

Other License

Other Selective Sales

Pari-mutuels Sales

Property

Public Utilities Sales

Public Utility License

Public Welfare

Severance

Sewerage

Sinking Funds – Cash and Securities

Tobacco Products Sales

Transit Utilities

Water Utilities

Workers Compensation – Other Contributions

All Other

DATA DELIVERY & SUPPORT:

The data will be provided in .xlsx files containing the Tax Data for the requested geographies and years. Users will have unlimited access to IMPLAN Community Forum at support.implan.com for questions specific to the data. IMPLAN economists will gladly respond to questions on IMPLAN’s Community forum within 5 business days at no additional charge. IMPLAN does not support data-application or related questions via email, phone, project consultation, or community forum.

To learn more about IMPLAN Tax Data, please contact IMPLAN at 800-507-9426 or [email protected]

LICENSE AGREEMENT:

Access to the IMPLAN Tax Data is protected with a custom license agreement.  The license agreement will be presented when you are ready to purchase data. Sorry, the lawyers make us do it.

 

RELATED ARTICLES:

Generation and Interpretation of IMPLAN’s Tax Impact Report

CEW Data

INTRODUCTION:

The 2018 Census of Employment and Wages (CEW) dataset is complete and now available to purchase in easy to use Excel files. Because of the level of detail and historic data available, the CEW data is perfect for establishing trends and running statistical analyses. The CEW data is useful for completing trend analyses and deep dives into U.S. wage and salary information. Drilling down into specified sector data allows for users to explicitly define the industry they wish to analyze at a granular level. 

 

PRODUCT DETAILS:

The Bureau of Labor Statistics collects a quarterly count of employment and wages across the U.S. called the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). It uses data that is reported by employers covering more than 95% of jobs across the country. Data is then made available at the county, state, and national levels. 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) releases CEW data, however there are certain non-disclosures within their data. The data contains employment, wages, and establishments in a given sector and area (down to the county level) and contains this information at the 6-digit NAICS level. This allows for even greater detail in specific modeling scenarios. IMPLAN adds value by filling in these non-disclosures based on existing data to be able to provide a complete picture.

The CEW data is available for 2001 to current IMPLAN data year (2018). IMPLAN refreshes these every five years as part of the panel data process, which is currently underway. The CEW data are for counties and up (including Puerto Rico and its municipios). The CEW data contains a Read Me file with additional information.

 

DATA DELIVERY & SUPPORT:

The data will be provided in .xlsx files containing the CEW data for the requested years. Users will have unlimited access to IMPLAN Community Forum at support.implan.com for questions specific to the data. IMPLAN economists will gladly respond to questions on IMPLAN’s Community forum within 5 business days at no additional charge. IMPLAN does not support data-application or related questions via email, phone, project consultation, or community forum.

To learn more about IMPLAN CEW Data, please contact IMPLAN at 800-507-9426 or [email protected].

 

LICENSE AGREEMENT:

Access to the IMPLAN CEW Data is protected with a custom license agreement.  The license agreement will be presented when you are ready to purchase data. Sorry, the lawyers make us do it.

 

RELATED ARTICLES:

CEW FAQ

 

BLOG:

New CEW Data Available Now

 

WEBINAR:

Occupational Matrices: Occupational Employment and Compensation by Industry

2018 U.S. Territories Data Release Notes

INTRODUCTION:
IMPLAN has data for the five Island territories of the U.S. We have data on American Samoa (AS), Commonwealth of Northern Marianas Islands (MP), Guam, (GU), Puerto Rico (PR), and Virgin Islands (VI). Note that the data sets for Island Areas are not nearly as comprehensive nor timely compared to the U.S., unfortunately. The 2018 U.S. Territories data contain two significant additions.

2018 UPDATES:
PROPRIETOR EMPLOYMENT ESTIMATES
While prior U.S. territories data has included estimates of proprietor income (PI), proprietor employment was not included as part of a given industry’s employment value (unlike IMPLAN U.S. data). The decision to not include proprietor employment was a conservative one made due to a lack of data on U.S. territory proprietors. However, proprietor estimates, derived using U.S. level sector-specific rates of proprietors-per-PI, are included this year to promote definitional consistency with labor income, which includes both wage and salary income and proprietor income.

Employment overall is up, which is expected with the inclusion of proprietor employment. Those sectors seeing the largest jump in employment will be those with a higher rate of proprietors-per-PI at the U.S. level, which generally equates to those sectors with a larger proportion of proprietor employment (e.g., agriculture sectors, personal services sectors, etc.).

IMPROVED GOVERNMENT SECTOR DISTRIBUTIONS
U.S. Territories data now mimics IMPLAN’s domestic data production in the use of BLS CEW ownership codes to derive government employment and wages data for IMPLAN sectors beyond just administrative payroll for education and non-education. For Puerto Rico (PR) and Virgin Islands (VI), both of which are covered by CEW, ownership code data provide employment and wage data for additional government activities such as passenger transit, electric utilities, and other government enterprises, along with continued employment and wage data for government administrative sectors. For territories lacking BLS CEW coverage, PR and VI CEW data are used to estimate these new distributions of total non-education government employment and wages between non-education administrative government and the government enterprise sectors (passenger transit, electric utilities, and other government enterprises).

With the 2018 data, you will now see non-zero estimates for government sectors that were previously zero. These include passenger transit, electric utilities, and other government enterprises.

DATA DELIVERY & SUPPORT:
U.S. Territories data is utilized only in IMPLAN Pro and provided in .odf form (i.e., similar to international models, but the U.S. Territories data utilizes the same Structural Matrix as the domestic data). No Journey to Work (JTW) or Trade Flow files are included. The Industry scheme is identical to that used for IMPLAN Pro domestic data and contains 544 Industries.
To learn more about our data on U.S. Territories, please contact IMPLAN at 800-507-9426 or [email protected]

Canadian Data Products

IMPLAN has released the 2012 Canadian Total File as well as Provincial level data. These IMPLAN data sets are based on the 2012 Statistics Canada data and have 103 sectors. Updated data at the national level is available using OECD data (rather than based on StatCan data.)

The Canadian data sets are not able to be aggregated, as each Provincial data file has a separate Structural Matrix. Each Province needs to have a separate model built. The current Canadian Provinces are not MRIO compatible for the same reason that the regions are not able to be aggregated.

While the data files are not downloadable, once your order is placed an IMPLAN support agent will call you to arrange the transfer of the data files.

CANADIAN PROVINCIAL LEVEL DATA
Alberta British Columbia
Manitoba Yukon
Saskatchewan Newfoundland
New Brunswick Northwest Territory
Quebec Nunavut
Nova Scotia Ontario
Prince Edward Island

SECTOR DESCRIPTIONS
Crop and Animal Production Forestry and Logging Fishing, hunting and trapping Support activity for agriculture and forestry
Oil and gas extraction Coal mining Metal ore mining Non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying
Support activities for mining and oil and gas extraction Electric power generation, transmission and distribution Natural gas distribution, water, sewage and other systems Residential building construction
Non-residential building construction Engineering construction Repair construction Other activities of the construction industry
Animal food manufacturing Sugar and confectionery product manufacturing Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing Dairy product manufacturing
Meat product manufacturing Seafood product preparation and packaging Miscellaneous food manufacturing Soft drink and ice manufacturing
Breweries Wineries and distilleries Tobacco manufacturing Textile and textile product mills
Clothing and leather and allied product manufacturing Wood product manufacturing Pulp, paper and paperboard mills Converted paper product manufacturing
Printing and related support activities Petroleum and coal product manufacturing Petroleum and coal product manufacturing Resin, synthetic rubber, and artificial and synthetic fibers and filaments manufacturing
Pesticide, fertilizer and other agricultural chemical manufacturing Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing Miscellaneous chemical product manufacturing Plastic product manufacturing
Rubber product manufacturing Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (except cement and concrete products) Cement and concrete product manufacturing Primary metal manufacturing
Fabricated metal product manufacturing Machinery manufacturing Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing Electronic product manufacturing
Electrical equipment and component manufacturing Household appliance manufacturing Motor vehicle manufacturing Motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing
Motor vehicle parts manufacturing Aerospace product and parts manufacturing Railroad product and parts manufacturing Ship and boat building
Other transportation equipment manufacturing Furniture and related product manufacturing Miscellaneous manufacturing Wholesale trade
Retail trade Air transportation Rail transportation Water transportation
Truck transportation Transit, ground passenger and sightseeing, and support activities for transportation Pipeline transportation Postal service and couriers and messengers
Warehousing and storage Motion picture and sound recording industries Radio and television broadcasting Publishing, pay/specialty services, telecommunications and other information services
Depository credit intermediation and monetary authorities Insurance carriers Lessors of real estate Owner-occupied dwellings
Rental and leasing services and lessors of non-financial intangible assets Other finance, insurance and real estate services and management of companies and enterprises Legal, accounting and architectural, engineering and related services Computer systems design and other professional, scientific and technical services
Advertising, public relations and related services Administrative and support services Waste management and remediation services Educational services
Health care and social assistance Arts, entertainment and recreation Accommodation and food services Repair and maintenance
Personal services and private households Professional and similar organisations Non-profit education services Non-profit social assistance
Non-profit arts, entertainment and recreation Religious organizations Miscellaneous non-profit institutions serving households Public educational services (except universities)
Public universities Public hospitals Public nursing and residential care facilities Other federal government services
Other provincial and territorial government services Other municipal government services Other aboriginal government services

International OECD Data Sets

INTRODUCTION:
IMPLAN now has data for the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries. IMPLAN OECD data covers 35 countries with 37 Industries and corresponding Commodities. The model is created based on OECD 2015 Input-output table at basic prices.

Final Demand includes:

Final consumption expenditure of households
Final consumption expenditure of non-profit institutions serving households (NPISH)
Final consumption expenditure of general government
Gross fixed capital formation
Changes in inventories
Value added components include:

Employee Compensation
Net Taxes on Products
Gross Operating Surplus
Other Taxes less than Other Subsidies on Production

OECD COUNTRY LIST:
Argentina Colombia Korea Saudi Arabia
Australia Costa Rica Malaysia Singapore
Brazil Hong Kong Mexico South Africa
Brunei Darussalam Iceland Morocco Switzerland
Cambodia India New Zealand Thailand
Canada Indonesia Norway Tunisia
Chile Israel Peru Turkey
China Japan Philippines Vietnam
Chinese Taipei Kazakhstan Russian Federation

LIST OF INDUSTRIES:
Agriculture, forestry and fishing Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Telecommunications
Mining and extraction of energy producing products Computer, electronic and optical products IT and other information services
Mining and quarrying of non-energy producing products Electrical equipment Financial and insurance activities
Mining support service activities Machinery and equipment n.e.c. Real estate activities
Food products, beverages and tobacco Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Other business sector services
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products Other transport equipment Public administration and defense; compulsory social security
Wood and of products of wood and cork (except furniture) Other manufacturing; repair and installation of machinery and equipment Education
Paper products and printing Electricity, gas, water supply, sewerage, waste and remediation services Human health and social work
Coke and refined petroleum products Construction Arts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities
Chemicals and pharmaceutical products Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles Private households with employed persons
Rubber and plastics products Transportation and storage Intermediate Taxes on Products
Other non-metallic mineral products Accommodation and food services
Manufacture of basic metals Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting activities

To learn more about this data, please contact IMPLAN at 800-507-9426 or [email protected]

Trade Flow Data

INTRODUCTION:
Have you ever wanted to take a peek at IMPLAN’s Trade Flow data? Have you been curious about the details of IMPLAN’s Gravity Model and Trade Flow RPCs? Then this might be the place for you!

IMPLAN’s domestic Trade Flow data set is comprised of county-to-county dollar values of domestic trade in all IMPLAN commodities (including services). The data are estimated via a doubly-constrained gravity model. The trade captured by this dataset is for both intermediate and final uses, and includes trade within a county (a county to itself). Cool right?

PRODUCT DETAILS:
The gravity model was originally adapted from Newton’s Law of Gravity! This law states that the attraction between two masses is directly related to the size of the masses and inversely related to the distance between them. The gravity model was first suggested in an I-O context in Leontief and Strout (1963). In the last fifty years, the gravity model has been widely used to predict trade flows (Federal Highway Administration, 1977, p. 118; Anderson and van Wincoop, 2003; Anderson, 2011).

In 2005, IMPLAN, in concert with the U.S. Forest Service, developed a sophisticated doubly-constrained (until all supplies go somewhere and all demands are fulfilled) gravity model to estimate trade flows for all IMPLAN commodities between all counties in the U.S. These Trade Flows show the movement of goods and services between and within counties or user-defined regions made up of counties. .

A key aspect of the data set is that the trade is on an origin-of-production basis, not an origin-of-movement basis. This means that the data set tracks from where a Commodity is produced to where it is consumed as either an intermediate or final use rather than from where a Commodity begins its export journey.

DATA SOURCES:
Each year, the IMPLAN database is used to create the attracting masses (supply and demand) for each U.S. county and each Commodity. These county masses are combined with distances (cost of transport indexes) between and within counties by mode of transport from Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) Transportation Network. The model is calibrated using distances traveled by Commodity from the most recent Commodity Flow Survey (CFS).

DATA DELIVERY & SUPPORT:
Data is delivered as a SQL .bak file or a .csv file. These files contain a single table with all county-county pairs and all Commodities. In this table, the counties are indexed from 1 to 3141 with no associated FIPS codes. A bridge table is included to match the county index to the appropriate FIPS code.

READY TO MODEL:
To learn more about purchasing our Trade Flow data, please contact IMPLAN at 800-507-9426 or [email protected]

RESOURCES:
Anderson, J.E. and E. van Wincoop. 2003. Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle. The American Economic Review, 93(1): 170- 192, March.

Anderson, J.E. 2011. The Gravity Model. Annual Review of Economics, Volume 3: 133-160.

Commodity Flow Survey (CFS)

Federal Highway Administration. 1977. Computer Programs for Urban Transportation Planning.

IMPLAN’s Gravity Model and Trade Flow RPCs

Leontief, W. and A. Strout. 1963. “Multiregional Input-Output Analysis.” In Barna (ed.), Structural Interdependence and Economic Development, London: Macmillan (St. Martin’s Press), pp. 119-149.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

Environmental Data

INTRODUCTION:

IMPLAN has three core values: community, respect, and stewardship. The goal of being good stewards has taken us beyond examining only the economic impacts associated with changes in production to examining some of the environmental impacts associated with current and projected levels of production. Working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), IMPLAN has bridged their emissions data to our Industries, thereby tying economic impacts to environmental impacts!  

 

PRODUCT DETAILS:

IMPLAN’s environmental data consist of Industry-specific coefficients of physical emissions or resource use per dollar of Industry Output. These ratios can be applied to the IMPLAN modeling system in order to gain insight into the environmental impacts associated with economic impact scenarios. The data also allows for the comparison of environmental footprints across geographies or over time.

The coefficients are Industry-specific, but the EPA data have somewhat less Industry-specificity than the IMPLAN data, such that some EPA ratios are mapped to more than one IMPLAN Industry.  In other words, some IMPLAN Industries have the same coefficients . 

The coefficients do not double count in that they do not include the emissions associated with the upstream industries/suppliers. For example, the emissions associated with the car manufacturing Industry do not include emissions associated with the production of car parts or other inputs produced by other Industries; the emissions associated with producing those inputs would be accounted for in the coefficients for those suppliers’ respective Industries. 

Any emissions generated directly by households (those not accounted for by household expenditures on electricity and not associated with the production of other items purchased by households) – for example, emissions generated by households’ burning of wood in a wood-fired stove in the home – are not included in the EPA dataset. Therefore, they are not accounted for in the IMPLAN emissions data set.  What this means is that all induced emissions in IMPLAN stem from household purchases of energy and of goods and services, all of which require energy to produce and thus create emissions. Any additional emissions generated directly by the household, those not associated with a purchase of energy, goods, or services, will not be accounted for.  

The coefficients are national-based.  The EPA is working on state-level data, which we plan to incorporate into subsequent iterations of the IMPLAN environmental data. Stay tuned.

 

DATA SOURCE:

IMPLAN’s environmental ratios are sourced from the U.S. EPA’s Environmentally-Extended Input-Output model (EEIO) data and the methodology put forth by Yang, Ingwersen, Hawkins, Srocka, and Meyer (2017). The data represented falls into 8 broad categories. Within these categories, tags are assigned to represent more specific types of each category. 

The categories are:

  • Criteria Pollutants
    • 267 tags
    • Examples: Nitrogen Oxides, Chromium III, Cellosolve Solvent
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    • 15 tags
    • Examples: CO2, N2O, CH4, CF4
  • Land Use
    • 220 tags
    • Examples: Urban Land, Urban Transportation, Rural Transportation, Coal Exploration Licenses
  • Mineral Use
    • 5 tags
    • Examples: Boron, Gypsum, Salt
  • Nitrogen and Phosphorus Release to Water
    • 2 tags
    • Includes: N and P
  • Pesticide Emissions
    • 747 tags
    • Examples: Spirodiclofen/air, Norflurazon/water, Fluxapyroxad/groundwater
  • Toxic Chemical Releases
    • 408 tags
    • Examples: 1,2-Dichloropropane, 1,2-Phenylenediamine, 1,3-Butadiene
  • Water Use
    • 247 tags
    • Examples: Alpacas; On-farm surface source, Alpacas; surface water, Aquaculture; groundwater

 

DATA DELIVERY & SUPPORT:

Until the data are available in the IMPLAN application, the data will be provided in a .csv file containing the coefficients for each IMPLAN Industry. To analyze an environmental impact, one would take the industry Output figures from IMPLAN and multiply them by the coefficients from the environmental data. It’s as easy as that.

Users will have unlimited access to IMPLAN Community Forum at support.implan.com for questions specific to the bridging of the EPA data to IMPLAN Industries.  We can also refer users to the EPA for any questions regarding the calculation of their coefficients. IMPLAN economists will gladly respond to questions on IMPLAN’s Community forum within 5 business days at no additional charge. IMPLAN does not support data-application or related questions via email, phone, project consultation, or community forum.

 

LICENSE AGREEMENT:

Access to the IMPLAN Environmental Data is protected with a custom license agreement.  The license agreement will be presented when you are ready to purchase data. Sorry, the lawyers make us do it.

 

SAMPLE DATA:

Sample Environmental Data

 

GO GREEN:

To learn more about our environmental data, please contact IMPLAN at 800-507-9426 or [email protected].

 

RESOURCES:

Ingwersen, W. An Introduction to USEEIO. The Strategic Analysis team for the Advanced Manufacturing Office, Cincinnati, OH, December 06, 2018. 

Yang, Y., W.W. Ingwersen, T.R. Hawins, M. Srocka, and D.E. Meyer, 2017. USEEIO: A new and transparent United States environmentally extended input-output model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 158: 308-318.